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Despite fierce and widespread local opposition, work has begun on opencast coal mining in Mainshill Wood, by the village of Douglas, where failures in local democracy have met ecological crises.

The residents of Grangemouth have always been asked to balance the economic benefit with the environmental impact of living so close to a polluting industry.

The stark fact is that only 5% of the world’s population has ever flown. The soaring CO2 emissions caused by aviation are largely the result of the rich in the rich world flying ever more frequently.

The schemes that have been imposed on the people of Merthyr – unbidden and unwanted – have been environmental disasters as well as causing social problems for the local populace.

Carbon-intensive lifestyles in the West have caused floods, droughts, resources wars and continued exploitative exploration throughout communities in the Global South.